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触目惊心的数据:72%的美国黑人儿童由单亲家庭养育

游客    游客  2017-2-26

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72%的黑人儿童由单亲家庭养育,全美国儿童单亲养育率为25%。

72 Percent Of Black Kids Raised By Single Parent, 25% Overall In U.S.   Apr 27, 2011


ByNewsOne Staff 

原文链接 http://newsone.com/1195075/children-single-parents-u-s-american/

One in four children in the United States is being raised by a single parent — a percentage that has been on the rise and is higher than other developed countries, according to a report released Wednesday.

根据周三公布的报告,四分之一的美国儿童由单亲养育---百分数还在上升并且数值比其它发达国家要高

Of the 27 industrialized countries studied by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the U.S. had 25.8 percent of children being raised by a single parent, compared with an average of 14.9 percent across the other countries.

经济合作和发展组织(经合组织)公布的研究表明:在被调查的27个工业化国家中,(儿童)单亲抚养的概率--美国的百分数是25.8%,相对的,其它国家平均是14.9%。

In the African American community, 72 percent of Black children are raised in a single parent household.

在非洲裔美国群体中,72%的黑人儿童由单亲家庭养育。

Here are some stats on the city to city breakdown of single parent families in the Black community from 2009.

这里有一些关于自2009年起对城市与城市之间黑人社区单亲家庭崩溃的统计数据。

Ireland was second (24.3 percent), followed by New Zealand (23.7 percent). Greece, Spain, Italy and Luxemborg had among the lowest percentages of children in single-parent homes.

爱尔兰是第二个( 24.3% ) ,其次是新西兰(23.7 %) 。希腊,西班牙,意大利和卢森堡的儿童单亲家庭抚养比例在最低层次。

Experts point to a variety of factors to explain the high U.S. figure, including a cultural shift toward greater acceptance of single-parent child rearing. The U.S. also lacks policies to help support families, including childcare at work and national paid maternity leave, which are commonplace in other countries.

  专家提出了多种因素来解释美国的高百分率,包括民俗文化转向,得以更大程度地接受单亲抚养孩子。美国也缺乏帮扶家庭的政策,包括在工作中照顾小孩儿以及由国家买单的带薪产假,而这些政策在其他国家司空见惯。

“When our parents married, there was a sense that you were marrying for life,” said Edward Zigler, founder and director of Yale’s Edward Zigler Center in Child Development and Social Policy. “That sense is not as prevalent.”

  “当我们的父母结婚时,会有一种意识,即,一起白头到老” (PS:这句不太准确),耶鲁大学的爱德华·齐格勒如是说,(爱德华·齐格勒是研究儿童发展与社会政策的耶鲁的爱德华·齐格勒中心的创始人和主任。) “那种意识(现在)不那么普遍的。 ”

Single parents in the U.S. were more likely to be employed — 35.8 percent compared to a 21.3 percent average — but they also had higher rates of poverty, the report found.

报告发现,在美国,单身父母更容易被聘用--为35.8%,相比平均水平的21.3%--但他(她)们的贫困率也更高。

“The in-work poverty is higher in the U.S. than other OECD countries, because at the bottom end of the labor market, earnings are very low,” said Willem Adema, a senior economist in the group’s social policy division. “For parents, the risk is higher because they have to make expenditures on childcare costs.”

“有工作的人的贫困率,美国比其他经合组织国家更高,因为在劳动力市场的底端,盈利是非常低的”群体社会政策部,高级经济师,威廉阿德马如是说。 “对于家长们来说,风险是较高的,因为家长们不得不支付托儿费用的支出。 ”

The Paris-based organization looked at a broad sector of indicators that affected families and children, including childhood poverty, early education and amount of time spent on parental care.

总部设在巴黎的组织,研究了一些影响着家庭和儿童的因素,包括贫困、童年的早期教育和父母花费多少时间去关爱孩子。

Across the nations examined, preschool enrollment has grown from 30 to 50 percent between 1998 and 2007. The average enrollment was 58.2 percent, while in the U.S. it was lower.

  纵观国家间的研究,在1998年和2007年之间,学前教育入学率已经从30 %升到50 %。 平均入学率为58.2 % ,而在美国比率要低一些。

The report noted that public spending on child welfare and education is higher in the U.S. than in other countries — $160,000 per child compared to $149,000. However, the authors say most of that money is spent after the crucial early childhood years.

该报告指出,花在儿童福利和教育上的公共开支,美国比在其他国家要高 - 每个孩子160,000美元相对的其它的国家是149000美元。然而,作者说,这些钱大部分都花在了关键的早期童年岁月之后。

“This means early investment — including childcare and support for families around the time of birth — could be strengthened,” the authors wrote in a separate paper examining the United States.

  

作者在美国一个单独的研究报告中写到:“这意味着早期的投资 - 包括托儿服务和各地的家庭生育支持 - 应该被加强。 ” 

The study pointed out that the U.S. is the only OECD country that does not have a national paid parental leave policy. Some states have started to adopt such policies, but most parents are offered 12 weeks of unpaid leave. This is particularly difficult for unwed mothers, who may not be able to afford to take time off, Zigler said.

研究报告指出,美国是唯一没有国家付费的带薪产假政策的经合组织国家。一些州已经开始采取这样的政策,但大多数父母只被提供12周的无薪休假。这对于未婚妈妈来说太困难了,她们可承担不起这么长的(无薪)时间,齐格勒如是说。

“We have not built in the kind of national support systems for families and children that other countries have,” he said.

他说:“我们还没有建立像其他国家有的那种国家对家庭和儿童支持的系统, ”。

Childhood poverty rates in the U.S. are also expected to climb — 23.5 percent from 20 percent. Adema said the rise is a direct result of the financial crisis and higher unemployment rates.

美国的儿童贫困率也被认为从20 % 攀升到23.5 % 。阿德马说这个高比率是金融危机和较高失业率造成的直接结果。

“The financial strain causes all sorts of other strain, so ultimately it might contribute to family dissolution,” Adema said. “At the same time, it might bring some families together. I suspect that the response differs across families.”

“资金紧张的问题会导致多种其他的紧张问题,所以最终它可能使家庭解散,”阿德马如是说。 “与此同时,这种问题也可能会把一些家庭聚在一起。我猜想不同的家庭对此会有不同的回应。”


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